The Battle of Marston Moor
by Ellen Castelow
The largest battle ever fought on English soil took place in the evening of the 2nd July 1644 during the English Civil War.
Prince Rupert of the Rhine had only just relieved the siege on the Royalist stronghold of York when he took up his position on Marston Moor against a combined force of around 22,000 Parliamentarians and Scottish Covenanters.
At 7pm the Parliamentarian army launched a surprise attack and following a confused fight lasting just two hours, Parliamentarian cavalry under Oliver Cromwell routed Prince Rupert’s Royalist cavalry and decimated their infantry.
The battle confirmed how a well-equipped and trained army could win the war and established Cromwell’s reputation as a great commander. The Royalists effectively abandoned all control in the north of England.
Date: 2nd July, 1644
War: English Civil War
Location: Long Marston, North Yorkshire
Belligerents: Royalists and Parliamentarians (including Scottish Covenanters)
Victors: Parliamentarians and Scottish Covenanters
Numbers: Royalists 17,000, Parliamentarians and Scottish Covenanters 22,000
Casualties: Royalists 5,000, Parliamentarians around 300.
Commanders: Prince Rupert of the Rhine and the Marquess of Newcastle (Royalists), Lord Fairfax and the Earl of Manchester (Parliamentarians)
More Battles in the English Civil War:
|Battle of Edgehill||23 October, 1642|
|Battle of Braddock Down||19 January, 1643|
|Battle of Hopton Heath||19 March, 1643|
|Battle of Stratton||16 May, 1643|
|Battle of Chalgrove Field||18 June, 1643|
|Battle of Adwalton Moor||30 June, 1643|
|Battle of Lansdowne||5 July, 1643|
|Battle of Roundway Down||13 July, 1643|
|Battle of Winceby||11 October, 1643|
|Battle of Nantwich||25 January, 1644|
|Battle of Cheriton||29 March, 1644|
|Battle of Cropredy Bridge||29 June, 1644|
|Battle of Marston Moor||2 July, 1644|
|Battle of Naseby||14 June, 1645|
|Battle of Langport||10 July 1645|
|Battle of Rowton Heath||24 September, 1645|
|Battle of Stow-on-the-Wold||21 March, 1646|